Hi, had a good class tonight and just wanted to answer a few questions I could not answer in class.

1) A map-maker is also called a cartographer.  Cartography is the science of map-making.

2) Although Canada does not have a large movie industry, many Hollywood films are shot in Vancouver, and Canada also has a small number of fairly popular movies.  Some of these include:

The Cube, Crash, FUBAR, The Corporation, and Canada is also known for it’s excellent documentary movies.  I actually produced one documentary film after University.

The article in Upper Intermediate was really difficult.  There are some words which refer to the geochronologic scale.  The words Eon, Era, Period, and Epoch, and Age are different measurements of time.  BP means “before the present time”.  Eons have one or more Era, Eras have one or more Period, Periods have one or more Epoch, and Epochs have one or more Ages.  Here is the currently accepted geochronological scale.  The Augst 29-30th article in Upper Intermediate deals with the notion that some scientists believe that we should now consider ourselves in a new Era

Eon Era Period Epoch Years BP
4 550 000 000
Hadean
3 500 000 000
Pre-Cambrian
Eozoic First cellular life – marine cyanobacteria
2 450 000 000
Archaeozoic Green algae, freshwater cyanobacteria
1 500 000 000
Proterozoic Terrestrial algae and fungi
570 000 000
Phanerozoic
Palaeozoic
Cambrian Fishes
508 000 000
Ordovician Spore-producing plants
436 000 000
Silurian Vascular plants, centi/millipedes, amphibia
404 000 000
Devonian Seed plants, non-flying insects, spiders
363 000 000
Carboniferous
Mississippian Flying insects
312 000 000
Pennsylvanian Reptiles
288 000 000
Permian
244 000 000 Extinction of trilobites, rugose corals, etc.
Mesozoic
Triassic Mammals
208 000 000 Extinction of much marine life
Jurassic Birds
145 000 000
Cretaceous (‘K’) Flowering plants
65 000 000 Extinction of dinosaurs, ichthyosaurs, etc.
Cenozoic
Tertiary (‘T’)
Palaeocene
57 500 000
Eocene Bats, horses, and whales
36 000 000
Oligocene
23 500 000
Miocene Many mammals of modern appearance
5 000 000
Pliocene First Homo
1 800 000
Quaternary
Pleistocene First Homo sapiens
11 000
Holocene
Today
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