There are many components of academic writing that are recurring. That is, there are many elements of academic writing that are common in all papers. For example, reviewing literature, critical discussion of previous research, discussing methodology, reporting your results, describing trends, etc.

ESL students and native speakers alike have problems to express these elements concisely, although they don’t need to have this trouble. There is a common phraseology that can be used in your writing that can make it much easier to express your ideas in acceptable and academic way.

The following link will take you to the Academic Phrasebank at Manchester University. On the left-hand menu, the site lists several common academic writing sections, as well as some common functions of academic writing. If you click on a menu-item, a explanation, as well as several sub-sets of phrases that you can use will be displayed.

http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/

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